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Model description

Chemistry-ionospher-climate model is improved version of CCM SOCOL  with added ion chemistry that used to nowcast the middle atmosphere. To treat properly chemical processes in the middle atmosphere we added ion chemistry, which takes into account 49 charged species (31 positive ions, 17 negative ions, and electrons) in the D-region.

The sources of ionization and produced primary ions are:

a) the photoionization of direct and scattered Lyman a radiation: NO+
b) the photoionization by galactic cosmic rays: O+, O2+, N+, N2+    
c) the dissociative electron attachment to O3 and three-body attachment to O2: O-, O2-
d) the positive secondary ions and ion clusters: O2+·X, NO+·X, H+(H2O)2-7
e) the negative secondary ions: O3-, CO3-, NO2-, OH-, NO3-, CO4-, O4-, HCO3-
    In total the chemical part of the model takes into account 485 reactions. For the ionospheric part of the chemistry the coefficients of the chemical reactions have been taken from (Koop, 1996;  Kazil, 2002).

   Koop, E., Electron and ion densities, in: W. Dieminger, G.K. Hartman, R. Leitinger (Editors), The Upper Atmosphere, Springer, 1996.
   Kazil, J., The University of Bern Atmospheric Ion Model: Time-Dependent Ion Modeling in the Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere, PhD, University of Bern, 2002.



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